Enterprise Architecture Overview

1  Purpose

This document is designed to provide an overview of Enterprise Architecture program areas that support a Modernization Program. Best practices and research shows IT modernization for large organization without business aligned enterprise architecture blueprint and effective investment management control simply ended to duplicative and not integrated IT systems. The iCallidus EA team’s goal is review the whole enterprise AS-IS and align it with business drivers to define the TO-BE state.

The purpose of this document is to provide an EA decision framework when considering Vision, Strategy, Metrics, Governance, People, Process and Technology to deliver assets (Data and Information) to business.

 

1.1  Key EA Drivers

  1. Identify duplicative business capabilities
  2. Identify duplicative IT systems and transition to “best of breed” IT systems
  3. Reduce technology footprint and optimize costs
  4. T Modernization
  5. Standardize technologies, provide clear alignment with the Target Architecture toward Application Service Governance1 (ASG) Architecture

11 Application Service Governance (ASG) is an advance Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) with extension of using API management and policy driven architecture. https://www.gartner.com/document/2752017

 

2   EA Modernization Program

This EA Modernization Program establishes and institutes program areas that provide business-centric, value driven EA services that enable a business to modernize and stabilize IT capabilities. There are three program areas that support an EA Modernization Program: Business Capabilities, Technology Roadmaps, and Architecture Governance. Each of these program areas provides a specific perspective that analyzes the relationships that exist between the operational mission needs and information technology needs of an enterprise. Collectively, these program areas provide decision-makers with a comprehensive view of what matters to the business, in terms of a company’s strategic priorities, organizational capabilities, information flows, application systems/services, and technology assets. The depiction below, shown in Figure 1, presents the Business-Centric EA Operating Model.

 

EA Modernization

Figure 1: EA Modernization

2.1  Mapping EA Layers to EA Program Areas

The relationships between the different EA Layers of the Enterprise Architecture and the EA Program Areas within the Modernization Program can be found in the table below.

 

Enterprise Architecture Layers

 

EA Modernization Program Areas

 

Business Architecture

Information Architecture

Application Architecture (includes IT Systems)

 

Business Centric Architecture

Business Capabilities

Application Architecture (includes IT Systems)

Technology Architecture (includes SW Products)

 

Technology Roadmaps

Application Architecture

 

               

Technology Architecture

 

 

Architecture Governance and Ongoing Engagement:

 

Updating records on New, Enhanced, Decommissioned IT Systems

Updating attributes used to describe IT Systems

 

3   Business Centric Architecture

The Business Capabilities program areas are critical. High priority business capabilities, information flows, and IT Systems are required to automate them in support of operations.

Key Business Capabilities Activities include:

  • Gather & Integrate Multiple Data Sets to Evaluate Business Capabilities and Dependencies on IT Systems
  • Develop Metrics and Visualizations to Pinpoint Areas of Concern
  • Identify Gaps and Redundancies where Multiple IT Systems Are Being Aligned to Capabilities
  • Collaborate with key stakeholders to determine what’s critical or a high priority

 

Key elements in the Business Centric Architecture are:

  • Stakeholder Power Map and Value Measures
  • Business Capability Evaluation Matrix
  • Business Capability Heat Map
  • Initiative Evaluation Matrix
  • Strategic Alignment Map

The Stakeholder Power map helps in visualization of the importance of stakeholders in identifying their value measures. It is represented by two parameters, Power of Influence and Interest and Impact. Power of influence indicates how much influence the stakeholder has. Interest and Impact indicates stakeholder’s interest in the initiative and the degree to which he/she will be impacted by the initiative.

The Value Measures of business and architectural significance provided by key stakeholders shows what value it provides to the business and how best IT modernization can be achieved through a Business Centric and Value driven Enterprise architecture.

The Business Capability Evaluation Matrix provides high-priority Business Capabilities which allows businesses to identify critical mission areas that align with an organization’s most pressing future modernization priorities.

A Business Capability Heat Map provides a holistic view of the enterprise and helps prioritize agendas and roadmaps to first focus on enterprise efforts regarding high-priority capabilities.

The Initiative Evaluation Matrix provides in-flight and scheduled high priority transformational initiatives which allows a company to identify critical initiatives therefore enabling the enterprise to achieve its goals.

The Strategy alignment map provides mapping between business capabilities, initiatives and imperatives. A lack of alignment may indicate that there’s a problem with the business strategy or its interpretation and execution: It is used to identify:

  • Business imperatives that are not supported by high-priority capabilities or initiatives.
  • Business capabilities that do not support business imperatives.
  • Business initiatives that do not support business imperatives nor aim to improve high priority business capabilities.

4   Technology Roadmaps

Technology Roadmaps deliver greater visibility into the Technology Environment to address issues in key areas such as configuration management, change management, and technology standardization.

Key Technology Roadmap Activities include:

  • Pinpointing redundant and unsupported versions of software/hardware products, starting with software technologies
  • Specifying redundant software products within specific categories of technology
  • Identifying IT Systems and the software technologies used to configure them and baseline their technology stacks
  • Enabling new modernization strategies for IT Systems with redundant or unsupported software technologies

The main objective of Technology Roadmaps is to develop company-wide standards, validate critical technology requirements, such as for technology standards and software development policies, as necessary to support business initiatives. Software Product Roadmaps and IT System Roadmaps with the vast number of software technologies used in a business, are built with an iterative approach that focuses first on an organization’s most critical information technology systems.

The development of Software Product Roadmaps and IT System Roadmaps is an iterative process, in collaboration with:

  • Stakeholders
  • DMSS for configuration management, software inventory, and software licenses information.
  • IT Security, for information on vulnerable software products and/or versions (ex, SCCM, etc.)
  • A variety of supplemental data sources, such as configuration management (SCCM) and other automated discover scans, direct contact with IT Systems owners.

Technology Roadmaps are provided in two distinct formats:

A- Software Product Roadmaps: Roadmaps for software product categories, with emphasis on industry trends, market research on individual products, automated discovery reports detailing software versions and instances in the current environment, and resultant findings and recommendations along with a modernization timeline.

Software Product Roadmaps are used:

  • To identify obsolete software products and versions in use in the environment.
  • To reduce the technology footprint of redundant products.
  • To eliminate security vulnerabilities.
  • To create software product standards by software category.

B- IT System Roadmaps: Roadmaps for IT Systems (aka, Applications) with analysis emphasizing technologies used by individual IT Systems (software products and infrastructure components), and resultant findings and recommendations.

IT System Roadmaps are used:

  • To identify duplicative IT systems and support selection of duplicative IT systems to be retired through cost-benefit analysis.
  • Identify duplicative IT systems and transition to “best of breed” IT systems to assist in efforts to restructure and merge automation of business functions.
  • To avoid wasteful expenditures and reduce redundant support functions.
  • To better leverage Technology and Improve Underlying Business Processes.
  • To leverage Existing Solutions for Common Requirements

C- IT Service Roadmaps: Roadmaps for IT Services with analysis of redundant microservices, to develop a common repository of services to modernize an organization’s Software Oriented Architectures (SOA), and provide resultant findings and recommendations.

IT Service Roadmaps are used:

  • To shift to Alternative Service Delivery Models
  • To identify “best of breed” IT Services (and Microservices) for standardization
  • To advance the way that a company delivers services to all stakeholders.

5   Architecture Governance

The Architecture Governance program area institutes a collaborative, shared planning process. This program area enables an organization to assess the needs of business and IT stakeholders to define and realize future-state visions through implementation of requirements, policies, and capabilities through the use of the EA standards.

Key Architecture Governance Activities include:

  • Identify IT Systems through integration and collaboration with stakeholders

  • Update & Synchronize IT System Data with other Sources of Stakeholder Data (ex. Security)

EA will map all existing and new projects with business imperatives, investments and business capabilities. Any new or existing project request will be mapped to business imperatives, investments and business capabilities. iCallidus’s EA Team will create a policy and a detailed process for evaluating new requests and advise the PMO office on all new initiatives.

5.1  Gap Analysis

The gap analysis will be performed by comparing the future-state vision to the current state, identify gaps and provide recommendations to fill them. The future-state vision will help coordinate the analysis of—and develop a plan to harmonize—required changes in business functions and processes, information and data provisioning, application system capabilities, and technology solutions. Effective Architecture Governance will help align IT investments (IT Systems) with a company’s long-term strategy, reduce risk, deliver higher-quality information and engineer adaptive solutions and technical services.

 

6   EA Operating Model

This section covers activities that make EA connect with the enterprise that focuses on business centric engagement, Strategic Plan, Business Goals and Objectives, Innovation, IT Investment, Leadership Vision, Mission and Goals.


 6.1  EA Process & Functions


  • Strategic Architecture Analysis
  • Business Architecture:
    • Processes include Business Capability Management, Alignment, Architecture Review
    • Functions include, development of Stakeholder Power Map, Data Collection and Capability Assessment
  • Business Capability functions
    • Capability Mappings and associated operations
    • Strategic alignment
  • Technology & Information Architecture:
    • Application / Product Roadmaps, Infrastructure Planning, IT Systems Roadmaps
    • Functions include: Technology Surveillance, Market Research / Industry Trends, Technology Fit Assessment
  • Processes & Standards: EPLC, Change Management, EARB
  • Technology Standards, Standard Technologies list, EA Standards and Templates
  • Technology Surveillance / IT Requests Management
  • Ongoing management and Governance
    • Technology Standards
    • Development standards

 

 

Figure 2: Enterprise Architecture Operating Model

7   EA Maturity

EA maturity is defined as follows:

 

Level

Name

Description

1

Initial

Creating EA Awareness

2

Repeatable

Building the EA management foundation

3

Defined

Developing the EA by applying a consistent process

4

Managed

Completing the EA

5

Optimized

Leveraging the EA to improve business benefit

 

8   EA Business Value Model

To better communicate EA business value, the business centric and value driven Enterprise Architecture is focused on determining what matters to the business and promoting EA’s value contribution to the business (for example, business outcomes). The outputs of the EA program are linked backed to the business outcomes and key strategic initiatives

 

 

Figure 3: EA Business Value Model

 

9   Conclusion

The EA modernization program which is Business-Centric and Value-Driven, helps an organization enable their strategic business intent and improve effectiveness, efficiency, and agility. It is focused on achieving the optimized level of a defined EA Maturity model by linking the outputs of the EA program backed to the business outcomes and key strategic initiatives.